This is a large group of travellers that sometimes need special advice
They may be temporally living in a foreign country for study, research work, short-term employment or expatriates returning to their country of origin for short visits to visit friends and relatives.
On return, they may be exposed to different or unexpected climate changes, infection risks and regional hazards to which they have become unaccustomed while abroad. They may also travel to other areas en route that they have not been to previously, such as Saudi Arabia for a pilgrimage.
This group may obtain their travel advice from their parents or grandparents which is now out of date or incorrect. They may also experience cultural and environmental adaptation problems similar to those who have no historical connection with the countries they are visiting.
A false distinction is often made between 'immigrants' (those who have migrated to live and work in countries such as the UK) and expatriates (those from the UK or similar countries who have migrated to live and work abroad).
Unfortunately the term`Visiting Friends or Relatives' has come to refer mainly to those travelling from higher to lower income countries
For example from Europe to the Indian subcontinent or Africa. This, however, is a gross simplification.
Studies among these groups are usually based only on numbers of infections, such as malaria and typhoid, diagnosed in the laboratory after being brought back into their home country
These infections are more common in all travellers, including 'VFR's, who did not consider or think it necessary to seek advice on prevention, or consider prophylaxis, before departure.
1) Those from eastern European countries returning for home visits
2) Those going from Europe to countries in the Southern Hemisphere such as Australia or South Africa (and vice-versa).
3) Those travelling to visit friends nearer to home or even within their own country
Those going from the south of England to more rural and northerly parts of Scotland or Scandinavia may be unfamiliar with:
only 8 hours or less of daylight in midwinter, being exposed to a colder and more challenging climate and being offered more basic accommodation
having unreliable or absent internet access including mobile location services
Those going to London from other parts of the UK may be unfamiliar with:
the large population and the high cost of living and accommodation
the pace of life, the crowded transport system and using satellite navigation on a mobile phone as a normal procedure to find your way around.
even not being able to see the sun (due to tall buildings) and the stars (due to 'light pollution') which can give the traveller a sense of the best direction of travel when walking or driving.
They may be leaving a country where they are familiar with their surroundings, living in good accommodation, receive regular weather forecasts, be aware of infection risks and know good 'public health and safety' practices are in place.
They think they are familiar with the health risks since they lived there in the past, but these have changed.
Their day-to-day lifestyle and precautions taken against illnesses may have changed.
Their susceptibility to illness may have changed, which might include their general health and immune status (see below) .
Advice may have been sought in advance from friends and relatives which is inappropriate and this can lead to a false sense of security unless the traveller is forewarned. .
They need to be aware that some of those visiting friends or relatives only seek advice when they find they need a vaccination certificate to enter the country they are visiting. The consultation is an opportunity to discuss some of the other risks they might encounter.
In the excitement of the visit, previous awareness of infection risks may be overlooked. These travellers are also likely to have lost immunity, due to previous repeated exposure in their country of origin.
Advisors should also bear in mind, when children are travelling, that visits abroad are sometimes undertaken for female genital mutilation (see mini-course 2 for further advice)
Accommodation, food, water and living conditions when staying with relatives may be predictable and easily supervised.
However VRFs are likely to venture elsewhere and also travel overland to and from airports involving overnight stays. Being away from the relative security of staying with the relatives, care over food and water hygiene can become more difficult and more careful mosquito bite avoidance measures may be necessary.
There is likely to have been a substantial increase in traffic on the roads with corresponding dangers and an increase in accidents. Road safety measures may not be adhered to in the manner to which the visitor has become accustomed.