This is a large group of travellers that sometimes need special advice
They may be temporally living in a foreign country for study, research work, short-term employment or expatriates returning to their country of origin for short visits to visit friends and relatives.
On return, the traveller may encounter different or unexpected climate changes, infection risks and environmental hazards to which they have become unaccustomed while abroad. They may also travel to other areas en route that they have not been to previously, such as Saudi Arabia for a pilgrimage.
These travellers may obtain their travel advice from their parents or grandparents based on their experiences, which is now out of date or incorrect. They may also experience cultural and environmental adaptation problems similar to those who have no historical connection with the countries they are visiting.
Often a false distinction is made between 'immigrants' (those who have migrated to live and work in countries) and 'expatriates' (those from the UK or similar countries who have migrated to live and work abroad).
Studies among these groups are usually based only on recorded numbers of infections, such as malaria and typhoid, diagnosed in the laboratory after being brought back into thei traveller's home country
These infections most common in travellers, including 'VFR's, who did not consider or think it necessary to seek advice on how to prevent these infections before departure.
1) Those from eastern European countries returning for home visits
2) Those going from Europe to countries in the Southern Hemisphere such as Australia or South Africa (and vice-versa).
3) Those travelling to visit friends nearer to home and within their country of residence. Here are some examples from within the UK
Those going from the south of England to more rural and northern parts of Scotland or Scandinavia may be unfamiliar with:
only 8 hours or less of daylight in midwinter, being exposed to a colder and more challenging climate and being offered more basic accommodation
having unreliable or absent internet access including mobile location services
Those going to London from other parts of the UK may be unfamiliar with:
the large population and the high cost of living and expensive accommodation
the pace of life, an overcrowded transport system and the common practice of using mobile phones to find directions.
not being able to see the sun (due to tall buildings) and the stars (due to 'light pollution') which can give the traveller a better sense of direction when walking or driving.
They may be leaving a country where they are familiar with their surroundings, living in excellent accommodation, receive regular weather forecasts, be aware of infection risks and know good 'public health and safety' practices are in place.
They think they are familiar with the health risks since they lived there in the past, but these have changed.
Their day-to-day lifestyle and precautions taken against illnesses may have changed.
Their susceptibility to illness may have changed, which might include their general health and immune status (see below) .
Advice may have been sought in advance from friends and relatives which is inappropriate and this can lead to a false sense of security. .
They need to be aware that some of those visiting friends or relatives only seek advice when they find they need a vaccination certificate to enter the country they are visiting. The consultation is an opportunity to discuss some of the other risks they might encounter.
In the excitement of the visit, the need to remain aware of infection risks, now unfamiliar, may not be considered. These travellers may also have lost immunity, which they had gained previously due to repeated exposure in their country of origin.
Advisors should also bear in mind, when children are travelling, that visits abroad are sometimes undertaken for female genital mutilation (see mini-course 2 for further advice)
Accommodation, food, water and living conditions when staying with relatives may be predictable and easily supervised.
However VRFs are likely to venture elsewhere and also travel overland to and from airports involving overnight stays. When away from the security of staying with the relatives, care over food and water hygiene can become confusing and other measures to avoid infections, for example against mosquito bites, be forgotten.
There is likely to have been a substantial increase in traffic on the roads with corresponding dangers and an increase in accidents. Official road safety regulations may not be followed, even more so than in the traveller's home country.