Short holidays

When on a short holiday, the idea that fun, relaxation and enjoyment are the prime objectives can lead to a sense of carefree abandonment. Not surprisingly, health risks can then include overindulgence in foods which may contain more oil or spices than the traveller is familiar with at home.

Heavy alcohol consumption is common on package holidays

Travel agents are not legally bound to inform travellers about health risks, but some suggest to clients that they should seek travel health advice well before travelling and even before booking.

  • Increased alcohol consumption and smoking can result from lower prices than at home.

  • Road accidents are a risk, especially when hiring scooters or motorbikes; forgetting traffic may drive on the opposite side of the road from at home.

  • Sunburn more so when intentionally sunbathing and accidents in swimming pools swimming the sea are common.

  • While most package tourists these days do not stay in poor accommodation, they do not escape the risk of travellers’ diarrhoea. If self-catering or eating away from their hotel, there may be a problem ensuring food purchased is safe.

  • Loose motions, constipation and irritable bowel disorders can result from a change in diet or the stress of travel.

  • Respiratory infections including ‘colds’, influenza and norovirus (also causing diarrhoea) spread when many people crowd into aircraft and cruise ships. Crowding may also be present in busy hotels and bars as well as in airports and when on public transport.

  • There may be a risk of exposure to life-threatening infections such as malaria and yellow fever


  • The costs of health care are not included in holiday packages so the traveller must have travel health insurance including repatriation if necessary and even then be prepared to pay all or some of the costs initially themselves.

Environmental considerations

Beach holidays in the sun are popular and beaches can be very crowded

Many tourist destinations have been adversely affected (environmentally and culturally) by an influx of visitors, numbers varying during certain seasons.

  • Awareness of the problems and responsibility on the part of companies and travellers can help to minimise this damage.

  • Sometimes local services such as food, water supplies, waste and sewage disposal cannot keep pace with the influx of tourists during the holiday seasons although there these difficulties may be kept out of sight of the tourists and mostly affect locals.

  • Most well-established game parks are well aware of environmental issues and the need for supporting animal welfare. However, there are tour operators who promote and advertise ‘eco-friendly’ holidays with varying levels of concern about environmental issues - profit often take precedence.

With the environment in mind travellers should be aware of the importance of:

  • minimising soil erosion by keeping to paths in crowded areas
The parthenon in Athens - many tourists can inadvertently cause structural damage, for example, to pathways or through climbing onto monuments
  • taking care not to damage local flora and fauna

  • reducing the use of plastic bottles and bags

  • disposing of ‘rubbish’ carefully, recycling if possible

  • being sensitive to the culture of locals regarding lifestyle and dress

  • buying local produce to support local communities

  • avoiding souvenirs made from wild animal products

For more information about environmental issues related to travel and organisation attempting to manage the issues involved see:

  • Overtourism considers the damage done to archaeological and other sites by large numbers of visitors and how this can be addressed.

  • Slow tourism looks at issues raised by large numbers of short, often day or weekend visitors to rural and often remote areas providing income for the locals but where facilities such as road and accommodation cannot cope.

  • The International Ecotourism Society focuses on responsible travel to natural areas which conserves the environment and improves the welfare of the local people.

(updated August 2018)